This article will cover the explanation of Neo Behaviorism in psychology which is a very important concept from the perspective of psychology students. This concept originated while the school of behaviorism was being established.
Explain Neo Behaviorism In Psychology
Neo means New, and behaviorism refers to the school of psychology that was developed by J.B. Watson whose objective was to focus on things that are present and practical and believed that stimulus leads to behavior.
Basically what happened was that as behaviorism was establishing its grounds/turning or amending its concepts of psychology, the concepts of Watson were further proved or we can say, elaborated by Tolman.
The father of Behaviorism is J B Watson, however, if we talk about who developed Neo Behaviorism or who was the father of Neo Behaviorism then it is none other than Tolman.
Difference Between Behaviorism And Neo Behaviorism
Watson explained molecular behavior while Tolman explained molar behavior. Let us discuss both of them.
What Is The Main Idea Of Behaviorism?
In Behaviorism, Watson talked about molecular behavior, that is, he simply explained the relation between a stimulus and a response.
Watson simply explained that stimulus/environment is present in our surroundings and we respond to it. Watson explained that a person responds to the surroundings or their atmosphere without explaining the cause of the response.
What Are The Main Views Of Neobehaviorism?
On the other hand. Tolman explained molar behavior. So, what is Neo Behaviorism theory? It is all about the intermediate processes between a stimulus and response about which Tolman said that behavior is always purposive. This indicates that if there is no purpose, there is no response.
On the basis of Tolman’s T-maze experiment, he gave two laws:
1. Law of Frequency
2. Law of Recency
Law Of Recency By Tolman
In his law of recency, Tolman explained that the recent information, that is you can learn the information best when it comes at the end of the list or the things which you have remembered carefully or things which are in the last.
Primary Effect: You remember the things which occurred first in the beginning. Like, maybe you remembered the T-maze efficiently at the beginning and in the first trial only you got Zero error and also because you might have good temporary memory gained at first glance, but it was not saved in your long-term memory.
According to Tolman, the intervening process between stimulus and response goes in the following manner:
It is formed in the mind of rats so that they can go in the right direction, hence they make a map in their mind.
Rats always expect there to be something in their way.
Rats had faith in learning the map.
4. Cognitive Map
In the end, Tolman concluded that finally a map gets developed in the mind of the subject.
Concept Of Latent Learning By Tolman
Tolman also introduced the concept of Latent Learning. Latent means “hidden”.
Tolman performed another experiment on Rodents(rats).
He divided rats into three groups with Groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively.
During his experiment, he always used to give food to group 1 irrespective of the fact if they performed the task well or not.
Groups 2 and 3 were not given any food.
But on the 11th day, group 3 was given food and it was gradually observed that on the 12th day, the performance of group 3 was enhanced because they had a purpose (food to eat), and hence, Tolman’s theory of Purposive Behavior was approved.
Hence, Latent Learning is learning which is somewhere in our mind but the individual doesn’t demonstrate it unless there is a need or motivation to do it. This is why the rats, who had already formed a cognitive map of the maze through latent learning, performed well only after they were given food at the end of completing the maze.
Do not forget to check out our article on Little Albert Experiment In Psychology Explained In Detail
Why Is Neo Behaviorism Important?
The concept of Neo Behaviorism plays the most important role in connecting the gap existing between the two concepts of Behaviorism and Cognitivism as Neo Behaviorism links them both by describing that an objective is important for certain behavior.
Who Developed Neo Behaviorism?
Clark L. Hull and Edward C. Tolman are the two important names that occur first when talking about the development of Neo Behaviorism. Of these two, Tolman has the most contribution towards this concept in psychology.
What Are The Three Principles Of Behaviorism?
The three principles of behaviorism are Reinforcement, Verbal Behavior Theories, and Social Development Theories.
What Are The Two Types Of Behaviorism?
There are two types of behaviorism namely Methodological behaviorism and Radical behaviorism. While Methodological behaviorism came from the work of John B. Watson, Radical Behaviorism was greatly developed by B.F. Skinner.
What Are The 4 Types Of Behavior?
There can be four basic types of behavior observed in human beings, these are Optimistic Behavior, Pessimistic Behavior, Trusting Behavior, and Envious Behavior.
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